It is often useful to create a graph with given vertex degrees. This function creates such a graph in a randomized manner.

## Usage

```
sample_degseq(
out.deg,
in.deg = NULL,
method = c("simple", "vl", "simple.no.multiple", "simple.no.multiple.uniform")
)
degseq(..., deterministic = FALSE)
```

## Arguments

- out.deg
Numeric vector, the sequence of degrees (for undirected graphs) or out-degrees (for directed graphs). For undirected graphs its sum should be even. For directed graphs its sum should be the same as the sum of

`in.deg`

.- in.deg
For directed graph, the in-degree sequence. By default this is

`NULL`

and an undirected graph is created.- method
Character, the method for generating the graph. Right now the “simple”, “simple.no.multiple” and “vl” methods are implemented.

- ...
Passed to

`realize_degseq()`

if ‘deterministic’ is true, or to`sample_degseq()`

otherwise.- deterministic
Whether the construction should be deterministic

## Details

The “simple” method connects the out-stubs of the edges (undirected graphs) or the out-stubs and in-stubs (directed graphs) together. This way loop edges and also multiple edges may be generated. This method is not adequate if one needs to generate simple graphs with a given degree sequence. The multiple and loop edges can be deleted, but then the degree sequence is distorted and there is nothing to ensure that the graphs are sampled uniformly.

The “simple.no.multiple” method is similar to “simple”, but tries to avoid multiple and loop edges and restarts the generation from scratch if it gets stuck. It is not guaranteed to sample uniformly from the space of all possible graphs with the given sequence, but it is relatively fast and it will eventually succeed if the provided degree sequence is graphical, but there is no upper bound on the number of iterations.

The “simple.no.multiple.uniform” method is a variant of “simple.no.multiple” with the added benefit of sampling uniformly from the set of all possible simple graphs with the given degree sequence. Ensuring uniformity has some performance implications, though.

The “vl” method is a more sophisticated generator. The algorithm and
the implementation was done by Fabien Viger and Matthieu Latapy. This
generator always generates undirected, connected simple graphs, it is an
error to pass the `in.deg`

argument to it. The algorithm relies on
first creating an initial (possibly unconnected) simple undirected graph
with the given degree sequence (if this is possible at all). Then some
rewiring is done to make the graph connected. Finally a Monte-Carlo
algorithm is used to randomize the graph. The “vl” samples from the
undirected, connected simple graphs uniformly.

## See also

`sample_gnp()`

, `sample_pa()`

,
`simplify()`

to get rid of the multiple and/or loops edges,
`realize_degseq()`

for a deterministic variant.

Random graph models (games)
`erdos.renyi.game()`

,
`sample_bipartite()`

,
`sample_correlated_gnp_pair()`

,
`sample_correlated_gnp()`

,
`sample_dot_product()`

,
`sample_fitness_pl()`

,
`sample_fitness()`

,
`sample_forestfire()`

,
`sample_gnm()`

,
`sample_gnp()`

,
`sample_grg()`

,
`sample_growing()`

,
`sample_hierarchical_sbm()`

,
`sample_islands()`

,
`sample_k_regular()`

,
`sample_last_cit()`

,
`sample_pa_age()`

,
`sample_pa()`

,
`sample_pref()`

,
`sample_sbm()`

,
`sample_smallworld()`

,
`sample_traits_callaway()`

,
`sample_tree()`

,
`sample_()`

Random graph models (games)
`erdos.renyi.game()`

,
`sample_bipartite()`

,
`sample_correlated_gnp_pair()`

,
`sample_correlated_gnp()`

,
`sample_dot_product()`

,
`sample_fitness_pl()`

,
`sample_fitness()`

,
`sample_forestfire()`

,
`sample_gnm()`

,
`sample_gnp()`

,
`sample_grg()`

,
`sample_growing()`

,
`sample_hierarchical_sbm()`

,
`sample_islands()`

,
`sample_k_regular()`

,
`sample_last_cit()`

,
`sample_pa_age()`

,
`sample_pa()`

,
`sample_pref()`

,
`sample_sbm()`

,
`sample_smallworld()`

,
`sample_traits_callaway()`

,
`sample_tree()`

,
`sample_()`

## Author

Gabor Csardi csardi.gabor@gmail.com

## Examples

```
## The simple generator
g <- sample_degseq(rep(2, 100))
degree(g)
#> [1] 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
#> [38] 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
#> [75] 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
is_simple(g) # sometimes TRUE, but can be FALSE
#> [1] TRUE
g2 <- sample_degseq(1:10, 10:1)
degree(g2, mode = "out")
#> [1] 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
degree(g2, mode = "in")
#> [1] 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
## The vl generator
g3 <- sample_degseq(rep(2, 100), method = "vl")
degree(g3)
#> [1] 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
#> [38] 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
#> [75] 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
is_simple(g3) # always TRUE
#> [1] TRUE
## Exponential degree distribution
## Note, that we correct the degree sequence if its sum is odd
degs <- sample(1:100, 100, replace = TRUE, prob = exp(-0.5 * (1:100)))
if (sum(degs) %% 2 != 0) {
degs[1] <- degs[1] + 1
}
g4 <- sample_degseq(degs, method = "vl")
all(degree(g4) == degs)
#> [1] TRUE
## Power-law degree distribution
## Note, that we correct the degree sequence if its sum is odd
degs <- sample(1:100, 100, replace = TRUE, prob = (1:100)^-2)
if (sum(degs) %% 2 != 0) {
degs[1] <- degs[1] + 1
}
g5 <- sample_degseq(degs, method = "vl")
#> Error in sample_degseq(degs, method = "vl"): At core/games/degree_sequence_vl/gengraph_mr-connected.cpp:152 : Cannot realize the given degree sequence as an undirected, simple graph, Invalid value
all(degree(g5) == degs)
#> Error in eval(expr, envir, enclos): object 'g5' not found
```