This function is useful if you want to create a small (named) graph quickly, it works for both directed and undirected graphs.

## Arguments

- ...
For

`graph_from_literal()`

the formulae giving the structure of the graph, see details below. For`from_literal()`

all arguments are passed to`graph_from_literal()`

.- simplify
Logical scalar, whether to call

`simplify()`

on the created graph. By default the graph is simplified, loop and multiple edges are removed.

## Details

`graph_from_literal()`

is very handy for creating small graphs quickly.
You need to supply one or more R expressions giving the structure of
the graph. The expressions consist of vertex names and edge
operators. An edge operator is a sequence of ‘`-`

’ and
‘`+`

’ characters, the former is for the edges and the
latter is used for arrow heads. The edges can be arbitrarily long,
i.e. you may use as many ‘`-`

’ characters to “draw”
them as you like.

If all edge operators consist of only ‘`-`

’ characters
then the graph will be undirected, whereas a single ‘`+`

’
character implies a directed graph.

Let us see some simple examples. Without arguments the function creates an empty graph:

A simple undirected graph with two vertices called ‘A’ and ‘B’ and one edge only:

` graph_from_literal(A-B)`

Remember that the length of the edges does not matter, so we could have written the following, this creates the same graph:

` graph_from_literal( A-----B )`

If you have many disconnected components in the graph, separate them with commas. You can also give isolate vertices.

` graph_from_literal( A--B, C--D, E--F, G--H, I, J, K )`

The ‘`:`

’ operator can be used to define vertex sets. If
an edge operator connects two vertex sets then every vertex from the
first set will be connected to every vertex in the second set. The
following form creates a full graph, including loop edges:

` graph_from_literal( A:B:C:D -- A:B:C:D )`

In directed graphs, edges will be created only if the edge operator
includes a arrow head (‘+’) *at the end* of the edge:

```
graph_from_literal( A -+ B -+ C )
graph_from_literal( A +- B -+ C )
graph_from_literal( A +- B -- C )
```

Thus in the third example no edge is created between vertices `B`

and `C`

.

Mutual edges can be also created with a simple edge operator:

` graph_from_literal( A +-+ B +---+ C ++ D + E)`

Note again that the length of the edge operators is arbitrary,
‘`+`

’, ‘`++`

’ and ‘`+-----+`

’ have
exactly the same meaning.

If the vertex names include spaces or other special characters then you need to quote them:

` graph_from_literal( "this is" +- "a silly" -+ "graph here" )`

You can include any character in the vertex names this way, even ‘+’ and ‘-’ characters.

See more examples below.

## See also

Other deterministic constructors:
`graph_from_atlas()`

,
`graph_from_edgelist()`

,
`make_()`

,
`make_chordal_ring()`

,
`make_empty_graph()`

,
`make_full_citation_graph()`

,
`make_full_graph()`

,
`make_graph()`

,
`make_lattice()`

,
`make_ring()`

,
`make_star()`

,
`make_tree()`

## Examples

```
# A simple undirected graph
g <- graph_from_literal(
Alice - Bob - Cecil - Alice,
Daniel - Cecil - Eugene,
Cecil - Gordon
)
g
#> IGRAPH af6b022 UN-- 6 6 --
#> + attr: name (v/c)
#> + edges from af6b022 (vertex names):
#> [1] Alice--Bob Alice--Cecil Bob --Cecil Cecil--Daniel Cecil--Eugene
#> [6] Cecil--Gordon
# Another undirected graph, ":" notation
g2 <- graph_from_literal(Alice - Bob:Cecil:Daniel, Cecil:Daniel - Eugene:Gordon)
g2
#> IGRAPH 9dd09d8 UN-- 6 7 --
#> + attr: name (v/c)
#> + edges from 9dd09d8 (vertex names):
#> [1] Alice --Bob Alice --Cecil Alice --Daniel Cecil --Eugene Cecil --Gordon
#> [6] Daniel--Eugene Daniel--Gordon
# A directed graph
g3 <- graph_from_literal(
Alice +-+ Bob --+ Cecil +-- Daniel,
Eugene --+ Gordon:Helen
)
g3
#> IGRAPH 21deab3 DN-- 7 6 --
#> + attr: name (v/c)
#> + edges from 21deab3 (vertex names):
#> [1] Alice ->Bob Bob ->Alice Bob ->Cecil Daniel->Cecil Eugene->Gordon
#> [6] Eugene->Helen
# A graph with isolate vertices
g4 <- graph_from_literal(Alice -- Bob -- Daniel, Cecil:Gordon, Helen)
g4
#> IGRAPH 938838f UN-- 6 2 --
#> + attr: name (v/c)
#> + edges from 938838f (vertex names):
#> [1] Alice--Bob Bob --Daniel
V(g4)$name
#> [1] "Alice" "Bob" "Daniel" "Cecil" "Gordon" "Helen"
# "Arrows" can be arbitrarily long
g5 <- graph_from_literal(Alice +---------+ Bob)
g5
#> IGRAPH a2cfe94 DN-- 2 2 --
#> + attr: name (v/c)
#> + edges from a2cfe94 (vertex names):
#> [1] Alice->Bob Bob ->Alice
# Special vertex names
g6 <- graph_from_literal("+" -- "-", "*" -- "/", "%%" -- "%/%")
g6
#> IGRAPH f2970c3 UN-- 6 3 --
#> + attr: name (v/c)
#> + edges from f2970c3 (vertex names):
#> [1] + --- * --/ %%--%/%
```